Equine Herpesvirus in Arctic Bears (Ursus maritimus) and Alien Equids Housed in US AZA Institutions
John A. Flanders1, DVM; Ray F. Wack2, DVM, MS, DACZM; Darin Collins3, DVM; Nicola Pusterla4, DrMedVet; Kathryn C. Gamble1, DVM, MS, DACZM, DECZM (Zoo Health Management)
1Department of Animal Care, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Sacramento Zoo, Sacramento, CA, USA; 3Woodland Park Zoo, Seattle, WA, USA; 4University of California-Davis, Davis, CA, USA
Equine herpesvirus (EHV) can account a ambit of ache in equids, from respiratory infections [EHV-4] to neurologic ache [EHV-1], while added strains [e.g., EHV-9] accept not been apparent to account analytic disease.6 Cross-infection of non-equid zoo breed with EHV-1 is rare, but analytic ache has been reported.1,4,5,7 In 2007, a arctic buck (Ursus maritimus) housed in a US zoological ability died from accelerating neurologic ache in which post-mortem assay appear EHV-9 aural its afraid tissue.2 While the afflicted arctic buck had no absolute acquaintance with alien equids, the aforementioned ache of virus had been detected in two Grevy’s zebras (Equus grevyi) housed aural 200 anxiety of the bear.8 Similarly, in 2010, two arctic bears from a European zoological ability developed neurologic disease, and one died.3 Post-mortem assay on afraid tissue of the asleep buck appear a recombinant ache of EHV-1 and -9; these bears additionally had no absolute acquaintance with zebras, although their asylum was aural 200 anxiety of an asylum with plains adjudicator (Equus quagga) of alien serologic status.3 Since these antecedent cases, EHV-1 has been detected in the afraid tissue of four bound atramentous bears (Ursus americanus) that died from acoustic disease.9 The present analysis was undertaken to appraise the serologic cachet of EHV in US AZA institutions apartment arctic bears (n=32) with (n=24) and after (n=8) alien equids in the accumulating to authorize ache prevalence and appraise accident factors for ache manual and prevention.
1. Bildfell R, Yason C, Haines D, McGowan M. Herpesvirus encephalitis in a biscuit (Camelus bactrianus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 1996;27:409–415.
2. Donovan TA, Schrenzel MD, Tucker T, Pessier AP, Bicknese B, Busch MDM, Wise AG, Maes R, Kiupel M, McKnight C, Nordhausen RW. Meningoencephalitis in a arctic buck acquired by equine herpesvirus 9 (EHV-9). Vet Pathol. 2009;46:1138–1143.
3. Greenwood AD, Tsangaras K, Ho SYW, Szentiks CA, Nikolin VM, Ma G, Damiani A, East ML, Lawrenz A, Hofer H, Osterrieder N. A potentially baleful mix of canker in zoos. Curr Biol. 2012;22:1727–1731.
4. Ibrahim ESM, Kinoh M, Matsumura T, Kennedy M, Allen GP, Yamaguchi T, Fukushi H. Genetic
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